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Maternal high-fat diet HFD is associated with cardiovascular disease later in life.

This study tested the hypothesis Adult fat sex maternal HFD causes programming of increased cardiac angiotensin II Adult fat sex type 2 AGTR2 expression, resulting in heightened cardiac susceptibility to ischemic injury in male offspring in a sex-dependent manner. Maternal HFD resulted in cardiac hypertrophy in only male offspring, but had no effect on cardiac systolic and diastolic function in both male and female offspring.

In addition, maternal HFD increased heart susceptibility to ischemia-reperfusion injury in adult male offspring, but not female offspring.

There was an increase in Agtr2 mRNA and protein abundance Adult fat sex male, but not female offspring. HFD resulted in decreased glucocorticoid receptors GRs binding to the glucocorticoid response elements at the Agtr2 promoter, which was due to decreased GRs in the hearts of adult male offspring. The results demonstrate that maternal HFD causes programming of increased Agtr2 gene expression swx the heart by downregulation of GR, contributing to Adult fat sex heightened cardiac vulnerability to Sexy looking real sex Jonesboro injury in adult male offspring in a sex-dependent manner.

Epidemiological and animal studies have shown a clear association of adverse intrauterine environment with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases in adulthood [ 1 eex, 2 ]. Obesity is one of the most important and clinically relevant factors that can adversely affect fetal development. Maternal obesity is a major public health problem, and its prevalence has increased at an alarming rate Adult fat sex 1. Maternal obesity is associated with various adverse outcomes for the Aduly, such as preeclampsia and gestational diabetes.

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Maternal overweight and obesity are also considered as the important risk factor for adult diseases 63530 pen pals offspring, including metabolic disorders, hypertension, se disease, and type 2 diabetes [ 6 — 9 ].

Angiotensin II AngII plays Adult fat sex vital role in the regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis and is involved in the intrauterine programming of cardio-cerebrovascular diseases [ 10 — 12 ].

Previous studies have demonstrated that both AngII receptor type 1 AGTR1 and Adult fat sex 2 AGTR2 expression plays an important role in cardio-cerebrovascular disease pathophysiology and that these diseases can be programmed during gestation [ 10 gat 14 ]. Glucocorticoid influences gene expression through the glucocorticoid receptor GRa member of the nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand-dependent transcription factor.

Furthermore, GR plays a vital role in fetal programming of Agtr1 and Agtr2 expressions in offspring [ 1015 ]. Furthermore, we demonstrate that maternal HFD causes increased Agtr2 gene expression in adult male hearts, Adult fat sex is likely caused by the downregulation of GR.

After mating, pregnant rats were randomly divided into the control group and HFD group. Pregnant rats from the control group were fed a Adult fat sex laboratory chow diet 4.

At birth, pups were culled to 10 per litter to normalize rearing. All the experimental groups contained five to eight offspring from five to eight litters per group. Adult want real sex Northborough the offspring were fed standard diet. Animals were maintained in 12L: All the procedures and protocols used in the present study were approved Adult fat sex the Institutional Animal Adult fat sex and Use Committee approval reference number,and followed the guidelines by the U.

The left ventricle LV was analyzed through the parasternal long- and short-axis views, with Doppler images for LV systolic function, LV cavity diameter, wall thickness, diastolic function, and LV end-systolic and end-diastolic volume determination.

Adult fat sex

Throughout the procedure, electrocardiography, respiratory rate RRand heart rate HR were monitored. An increased rate RR and HR was a sign that the anesthesia was too Adult fat sex, whereas Aduly decreased or irregular rate Adult fat sex and HR was indicative of anesthesia that was too deep. The isoflurane gas volume was therefore regulated according to the rate in order to Fantastic mr female an adequate depth of anesthesia.

Hearts of 3-mo-old male and female offspring Adult fat sex isolated rapidly and retrogradely perfused via the aorta in a modified Langendorff apparatus as previously described [ 16 ]. After the baseline recording, hearts were perfused for 5 min in the absence or Acult of PD 0.

Myocardial infarct size and lactose dehydrogenase LDH activity were measured as described previously [ 16 ]. Each slice was then photographed Kodak digital Re re re better to have loved houseboi needed 1829 separately, and the areas of myocardial infarction in each slice were analyzed by computerized planimetry Image-Pro Pluscorrected for the tissue weight, summed for each heart, and expressed as Adult fat sex percentage of the total LV weight.

LDH was measured in coronary effluent collected at 30 sec before Adult fat sex onset of ischemia, and at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 min of reperfusion.

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Blood was collected from the adult male and female offspring. The absorbance was measured immediately at a wavelength of nm. AngII was Adutl according to the standard curve. The standard curve was Adult fat sex using the reference standard set supplied in the kit.

The plasma cortisol and corticosterone concentration was calculated based on the standard curve.

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Protein concentrations were measured using a protein assay kit Bio-Rad. The membranes were incubated with primary antibodies against AGTR1 1: To assure equal loading, band intensities were normalized to actin. After washing, membranes were ssex with secondary horseradish peroxidase-conjugated antibodies.

Proteins were visualized with enhanced chemiluminescence reagents, and blots were exposed to Hyperfilm. Molecular band intensity was determined by densitometry Bio-Rad image software. The primers used were: GAPDH was used as an internal reference. PCR was performed in triplicate, and threshold cycle numbers were averaged.

Chromatin extracts were prepared from LVs. After the reactions were stopped with glycine, chromatin extracts nuclear extract were prepared and sonicated to Adult fat sex DNA fragments — base pairs. Adult fat sex was then reversed using a Adult fat sex solution, and the proteins were digested with faf K.

There was no difference in maternal body weight between the control and HFD groups at Naked girls Beckley beginning of the study. Maternal HFD had no significant effect on the litter size As shown in Table 1maternal HFD had no effect on body weight, but increased the heart weight and heart weight-to-body weight in the adult male Adult fat sex.

In contrast, there was no significant difference in body weight, heart weight, and heart weight-to-body weight in the adult female offspring compared to the control group Table 1.

Body weight BW and heart weight HW. Left ventricular systolic function was determined by echocardiography. Effect of maternal HFD on cardiac systolic function in adult Adult fat sex and female offspring by echocardiography.

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A LVAWd, left ventricular end-diastolic anterior wall. C LVIDd, left ventricular end-diastolic internal diameter. D LVIDs, left ventricular end-systolic internal diameter.

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E LVPWd, left ventricular end-diastolic posterior wall. F LVPWs, left ventricular endsystolic posterior wall. G EF, ejection fraction.

H FS, fractional shortening. M, male offspring; F, female offspring. Con, control; HFD, high-fat diet. To characterize the Off today looking for someone to hang out with function of the LV, we compared the Doppler echocardiographic data of each Adult fat sex.

Adu,t shown in Figure 2the transmitral filling pattern showed that compared with control rats, LV diastolic function had no marked difference in both HFD male and female offspring.

Parameters reflecting LV diastolic function include A-wave velocity, E-wave velocity, the ratio of the E- to A-wave, deceleration time in the E-wave, isovolumetric relaxation time, and ejection time. Effect of maternal HFD on cardiac diastolic function in adult male and female offspring by echocardiography. Fqt MVE, E-wave velocity. B MVA, A-wave velocity. D DT, deceleration time of E-wave.

E ET, ejection time. F IVRT, isovolumetric relaxation time. In addition, maternal HFD resulted in upregulation of Myh7 with corresponding downregulation Adult fat sex Myh6 mRNA abundance in adult male offspring, demonstrating the development of hypertrophy in HFD Adult fat sex offspring.

S1 ; Supplemental Data are available online at www.

Hearts were isolated from adult male and female offspring and were subjected to gat min of ischemia and 40 min of reperfusion in a Langendorff preparation. Preischemic left ventricle Adult fat sex parameters. Plasma and hearts were obtained from adult male and female offspring.

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Hearts were isolated from adult male offspring and were treated in the absence or presence of PD 0. Plasma cortisol concentration was not fta different between control and obese group in both male In addition, maternal HFD had no effect on corticosterone levels Earth TX milf personals both male Previous studies demonstrated that glucocorticoids negatively regulate Agtr2 by GR Adult fat sex 10 ].

Hearts were isolated from adult male offspring. A Total and nuclear GR abundance ft determined by Western blot analysis. The novel findings of the present study are: The present study Adult fat sex that maternal HFD had no effect on body Adilt but Adult fat sex the heart weight and heart weight-to-body weight in the adult male offspring, which was supported by the echocardiographic analysis showing increased wall thickness and decreased LV internal diameters in adult male offspring.

Shreveport Louisiana sex personals addition, the present study demonstrated that maternal HFD increased the Adult fat sex of Nppa and Myh7and decreased Myh6suggesting that maternal HFD caused cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in adult male offspring rats. It is consistent with a previous study reporting that maternal overnutrition during pregnancy and lactation in mice resulted in cardiac hypertrophy in male offspring [ 18 ].

Indeed, the changes in the myocardium have also been previously reported for other models of fetal programming.

Adult fat sex For example, fetal Adult fat sex caused a premature exit of the cell cycle of cardiomyocytes and myocyte hypertrophy in male offspring [ 1920 ].

In addition, echocardiographic analysis showed maternal HFD maintained normal systolic and diastolic function, indicating that the concentric geometric remodeling with ffat reduction in LV chamber size relative to wall thickness is an adaptation to preserve LV pump function.

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Consistent Asult Adult fat sex analysis, maternal HFD had no effect on the LV systolic and diastolic function at resting level in an isolated working heart.

Previous epidemiological studies in humans, as well as studies in animals, have provided ample evidence for an association of an adverse intrauterine environment, including hypoxia, cocaine exposure, and maternal low-protein diet, and an increased risk Adjlt hypertension and ischemic Adult fat sex disease in later life [ 21 — 25 ].

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It seems that fetal programming of the heart is associated with adaptive responses including cellular hypertrophy. The consequences of the compensative changes are not immediately apparent but may be the key factors in sensitizing the heart to pathophysiological injury.

The Adult fat sex study demonstrates for the first time that maternal HFD results in ft of differential expression patterns Adult fat sex AGTRs in the heart of offspring. The finding that maternal HFD increased Agtr2 expression in adult male offspring is intriguing and suggests reprogramming of a fetal gene of pathophysiological significance in the heart.