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But because Lynn callgirls Liliane is able to switch Rowwalden her dominant side, she's fine with being submissive instead. Meet Lynn Callgirls Tanja - open minded and adventurous in Lynn. Therefore, I will comply. It also integrates French and Raven's bases of power — reward, coercive, referent, legitimate, and expert — using Hinkin and Schriesheim's revised operational definitions.
Barbuto and Scholl's taxonomy of motivation is used to describe followers' sources of motivation. It consists of five types of motivation: Different susceptible followers have different influence triggers that reflect their vulnerability to destructive leaders. When activated, the likelihood of such triggers leading to each follower's compliance increases to the extent that the leader holds a compatible form of power; the influence trigger taps into salient aspects of their motivations; and their resistance is low.
We further suggest that these triggers are a product, in part, of certain individual factors. In our discussion, we highlight each follower type's primary influence triggers, their sources of motivation, Sinyle the forms of power likely to be effective with each. We then integrate research on susceptible followers and discuss the predisposing factors related to each. Preliminary observations Five points regarding the proposed taxonomy are necessary.
First, while we assume that the follower types are distinct for the purpose of exposition, there is probable overlap among them. Individuals do not always fit neatly into one of the susceptible follower categories. Instead, they may reflect multiple Single women seeking men in Rowalden. As such, followers may experience different influence Single women seeking men in Rowalden at any one time.
In turn, multiple forms of power Girls for sex in Buckley Illinois by destructive leaders may be effective in facilitating their compliance, and different triggers may also tap into different sources of motivation in each unique case.
Second, our taxonomy focuses on the individual factors that shape each follower's initial susceptibility to destructive leaders. Third, we make no assumptions about the stability of these individual factors over time; although some are stable, others may be more ephemeral. Fourth, we do not speculate on the relative importance of these factors in shaping each follower type's compliance with Single women seeking men in Rowalden leaders.
Indeed, some may be more or less important than others, however, we leave this issue up to future research to determine. Finally, while the role of context is well recognized by leadership scholars, this paper does not focus on, but rather holds constant, aspects of the organizational and societal context that contribute to follower susceptibilities.
Thus, we restrict our focus to illuminating the susceptible followers' portion of this toxic triangle Single women seeking men in Rowalden destructive leadership. The susceptible circle No matter iin clever or devious, leaders alone cannot achieve toxic results. Destructive leaders are Naughty woman want sex tonight Garner of carrying out their toxic agendas with the assistance of susceptible followers and conducive environments Kellerman, ; Lipman-Blumen, ; Padilla Single women seeking men in Rowalden al.
Once in power, the ability of destructive leaders to organize plans, mobilize resources, rally support, and execute their visions hinges on followers carrying out their orders. Since Milgram's sweking findings on obedience, as well as classic works by Fromm Hot woman want sex Truro Adorno, Frenkel-Brunswik, Levinson, and Sanfordscholars have suggested a natural tendency for ni people to Adult want casual sex Cambridge Ohio destructive seekking e.
There are always individual differences in compliance, regardless of Rowaalden context Blass, Indeed, Berkowitz warned that failing to acknowledge individual differences in obedience limits the generalizability of research findings to real-world atrocities such as the Holocaust.
Given different people will inevitably react differently to the same destructive leader, this suggests a taxonomy of different susceptible followers would be useful. Two points are relevant here. Congruent with Padilla et al. While conformers are prone to obedience, and thus do not engage in destructive behavior alone, colluders actively contribute to the leader's mission.
Second, prior research largely focuses on the conformer side, as evidenced in studies of authoritarianism and obedience e. Yet, to date, we are unaware of any attempts Single women seeking men in Rowalden synthesize these Beautiful looking sex tonight Clarks Summit to derive a Horny sexy women Bagh-e Gerdak cohesive understanding of susceptible followership.
Drawing on Rowaldem work, Who wants to feel my tongue thus propose three conformer sub-types: We also suggest two colluder sub-types: Our model of the susceptible circle is depicted in Fig.
Included in the figure are Single women seeking men in Rowalden follower types' dominant Fig. Followers associated with destructive leadership. Please refer to the text for definitions of each follower type's relevant dimensions. Each of the follower types is elaborated on below. Indeed, Single women seeking men in Rowalden leaders would appear to be especially attractive to lost souls. These triggers reflect an inclination to comply based on one's intense attraction, devotion, and identification with the leader and a belief that compliance will gain his Single women seeking men in Rowalden her acceptance Barbuto, ; Shamir, When destructive leaders tap leader identification triggers in lost souls, the greater the degree to which lost souls are externally self-concept motivated, the greater the chances Single women seeking men in Rowalden such triggers leading to their compliance Barbuto, If lost souls' resistance is low, compliance is Sexy latina girl wanted more likely.
As lost souls' a external self-concept motivation increases, b their resistance to the influence attempt decreases, and c the leader's referent power increases, the seekimg that leader identification triggers will lead to their compliance with destructive leaders also increases.
The vulnerability of lost souls stems, in part, from a unmet basic needs, b personal life distress, c low self-concept clarity, and c negative core self-evaluations. These individual factors increase the likelihood of destructive leaders tapping leader identification triggers in this type of susceptible follower. Unmet basic needs Drawing on Maslow's hierarchy of needs, Burns suggested that followers' basic needs must be met before their higher aspirations can be activated.
The same holds for destructive leadership. Research on cult followership, for example, indicates that even some of the most destructive leaders e. Humans learn to depend on authority figures to provide for these needs Kohut, Kellerman suggested that we carry this dependency into the workplace when we rely on leaders to give direction and structure to our daily lives. For lost souls, these unmet needs are so ingrained that they are particularly susceptible to certain leaders, especially those with charismatic appeal.
Kohut similarly suggested that for those whose basic seekong are deprived early in life there may exist a strong proclivity to seek out leaders who are able to satisfy them. Fromm further observed that certain Please cite this article as: Lost souls tend to identify with such leaders and perceive them woemn potential love objects, nurturers, and role models Deutsch, ; Lindholm, Such was the case for followers of Charles Manson, who despite coming from privileged backgrounds, were marked by feelings of emptiness and alienation from mainstream society Padilla et al.
By offering a sense of community and a group with which to belong, as well as acting as a source of unconditional love and acceptance, destructive leaders are able to attract lost Rowaldden who will sacrifice their autonomy and obey unethical orders to please their leaders Padilla et al.
During these times of great need and confusion, lost souls seek out simple solutions and immediate fulfillment of their needs Cushman,leading to a susceptibility for identifying with destructive leaders Galanter et al.
While research on cult followership suggests that feelings of distress reflect clear patterns in lost souls, such turmoil may instead moderate the effects of needs on lost souls' vulnerability to destructive leaders. Self-concept clarity Self-concept clarity refers to the extent to which one's self-concept is clearly and confidently defined, internally consistent, and temporally stable Campbell, Research suggests that those lacking a coherent sense of self are more vulnerable to charismatic religious and political leaders Cushman, ; Galanter, ; Whitsett, Weierter argued that these followers derive increased self-esteem Single women seeking men in Rowalden emulating the Women seeking hot sex Grandy and values that are confidently expressed by the leader.
Internalization of the leader's ideology coincides with the development of strong feelings of affection and loyalty to the leader, and a desire for their approval via pursuit of their task directives Barbuto, Single women seeking men in Rowalden, Howell and Shamir noted that people with low self-concept clarity tend to be especially needy followers who are confused and disoriented prior to joining the charismatic relationship.
Such individuals need self-direction and are likely Pussy fucking in bonneau sc seek out charismatic leaders, identify with them, and gain a greater sense of purpose and direction, as well as increased confidence and self-esteem, from this identification. While low self-concept clarity is applicable to any immature adult, it applies especially well to the young Padilla et al.
Because lost souls tend to identify with cultural heroes and internalize their values Padilla et al. The Manson Family, the Hitler Youth, Castro's Pioneros, and Mao's Red Guard all illustrate the destructive potential of impressionable followers who internalize a destructive leader's message.
Thus, over time, lost souls can turn from blind conformers to active colluders Kets de Vries, ; Padilla et al. They are also linked to the susceptibility of certain individuals to destructive leaders e. Self-esteem concerns the overall value people place on themselves Harter, It is related to, but distinct from, self-concept clarity in that individuals with low self-esteem are not typically marked by a well-defined negative view of themselves, but rather by high uncertainty, instability, and inconsistency in their self-concept Campbell et al.
Research suggests that lost souls tend to view themselves as worthless and empty Fromm, ; Shaw, and are associated with low levels of self- esteem e. Lost souls' lack of self-efficacy is evident in their need for leaders to take care of them and convey Single women seeking men in Rowalden solutions to problems they cannot solve on their own Shaw, Dawson noted that the low Ladies wants hot sex ND Heil 58533 of followers of new religious movements manifests in a need for vicarious control over their environment through an intense emotional identification with a powerful charismatic leader.
Locus of control refers to the belief that one controls their own fate versus the belief that outcomes result from external factors Rotter, Followers with an external locus of control are easier to manipulate Single women seeking men in Rowalden are attracted to individuals who appear to be powerful and willing to care for them Padilla et al.
Further, despite some conflicting findings e. These lost souls derive a sense of relief from the charismatic relationship Galanter, ; Galanter et al. Individuals with higher scores on the lost soul follower type, including a high levels of unmet needs, b high levels of personal life distress, c low self-concept clarity, and d low core self-evaluations, are more likely to experience leader identification triggers in the presence of destructive leaders than those with lower Single women seeking men in Rowalden on the lost soul follower type.
Research on authoritarian followers is traced to Adorno et al. Altemeyer's current reinterpretation, known as right-wing authoritarianism RWAsuggests that certain individuals hold strong internal values that stress obedience to legitimate authorities and conformity to in-group norms.
Unlike the lost soul, whose personal identification with leaders shapes their compliance, the authoritarian feels an obligation to obey based on the leader's status and position, which reflects the legitimacy of his or her power Raven, These triggers reflect an inclination to comply based on the belief that job requirements, position power, organizational culture, and normative roles in the organization are congruent with the leader's requests Barbuto, As such, authoritarians Single women seeking men in Rowalden not obey because they seek approval or fear retribution, but simply because the leader holds a higher rank in the organization.
Thus, a destructive leader's legitimate power can be a powerful influence on the authoritarian's engagement in crimes of obedience. As authoritarians' a resistance to the influence attempt decreases, and b Single women seeking men in Rowalden leader's legitimate power increases, the likelihood that role legitimacy triggers will lead to their compliance with destructive leaders also increases.
The authoritarian's susceptibility resides primarily in Single women seeking men in Rowalden a deeply ingrained authoritarian ideology, b a cognitively rigid disposition, and c a propensity towards just-world thinking.
These characteristics enhance the likelihood of destructive leaders activating role legitimacy triggers in authoritarian followers. Authoritarianism Authoritarianism refers to three interrelated attitudinal clusters: It encompasses uncritical deferment to authority based on a leader's legitimate power, position, and status in society submission ; strict adherence to in-group norms, rules, and social conventions conventionalism ; and Single women seeking men in Rowalden a general intolerance and punitiveness toward perceived out-group members and dissidents aggression.
Single women seeking men in Rowalden Hing, Bobocel, Zanna, and McBride found that authoritarian followers were more likely to obey and support an unethical confederate leader, and that these dyads made more unethical decisions.
Authoritarians are also more likely to display unconditional respect for and trust in legitimate authorities, engage in hostility towards others in the name of authority, volunteer in the persecution of out-groups, and are less likely to assign blame to those who punish norm Single women seeking men in Rowalden e.
Authoritarians may become Please cite this article as: Indeed, German child-rearing practices emphasizing strict discipline and a lack of expression of love are thought to be a cause for the blind obedience, hostility, and cruelty of authoritarian followers Yonkers New York view xxx Jews, homosexuals, and other out-groups during World War II Devereux, ; Miller, Dicks found that former Nazi SS officers spoke of poor relationships with authoritarian fathers who genuinely believed in and practiced corporal punishment.
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This strong focus on respect for authority seekig also witnessed in societies marked by genocide, such as Turkey, Cambodia, and Rawanda Staub, Thus, authoritarians' blind obedience can change to active collusion in unethical leader-directed plots and initiatives Staub, It Sex chat rooms Swedesboro been suggested that people who unconditionally accept legitimate authorities are characterized by a rigid, intolerance of ambiguity and a preference Rowalren a simple, well defined and unambiguous world Chirumbolo, ; Frenkel- Brunswik, ; Rokeach, ; Rump, Together, they lead to reduced information seeking and processing and, in turn, greater resistance to change and strict adherence to preexisting social structures Kruglanski, With respect to leadership, it is not surprising that such individuals often adopt authoritarian ideologies, stressing compliance with strong leaders who embody stability, order, and discipline Chirumbolo, Just-world thinking Just-world thinkers tend to view the world as a just and fair place, marked by a fit between people's behavior and things that happen to them Lerner, As a result, these attitudes may be a cause of the blind trust and obedience displayed by authoritarians to destructive leaders Altemeyer, Moreover, BJW may further allow authoritarians to excuse wojen participation in unethical acts perpetrated at the behest of such leaders Staub, ; Suedfeld, This facilitates displacement of moral responsibility, which allows followers to morally disengage from their crimes of obedience Single women seeking men in Rowalden, ; Staub, Individuals with higher scores on the authoritarian follower type, including a high levels of authoritarian attitudes, b high levels of cognitive rigidity, and c high levels of just-world thinking, are more likely to experience role legitimacy triggers in the presence of destructive leaders than those with lower scores on the authoritarian follower type.
Perhaps the most common type of susceptible follower, bystanders seek to minimize the costs e. Thus, the bystander's fear-based motivations are inherently instrumental in nature; they exchange conformity and compliance for safe haven from potential punishments Barbuto, In contrast to the other conformers, Please cite this article as: Because bystanders are inclined to comply with destructive orders given they believe a failure to obey will result in negative consequences, manipulative triggers reflect the essence of their susceptibility Barbuto, Bystanders interpret Single women seeking men in Rowalden leader's orders as threats and believe they can and will invoke punishments, no matter whether they intend to send such a message Barbuto, When destructive meh tap manipulative triggers in bystanders, the greater the extent with which these followers are instrumentally motivated, and thus highly sensitive to tangible outcomes, positive rewards or Just sex why is that so hard punishmentsthe greater the chances of these triggers leading to their compliance.
Single women seeking men in Rowalden odds are also increased to the extent that bystanders believe the leader can dispense punishments i.
Thus, a destructive leader's coercive power reflects a Single women seeking men in Rowalden source of influence over bystanders. As bystanders' a instrumental motivation increases, b their resistance to the influence attempt decreases, and c Singel leader's coercive power increases, the likelihood Single women seeking men in Rowalden manipulative triggers will lead to their compliance with destructive leaders also increases.
The vulnerability Rowadlen bystanders primarily rests in their a negative core self-evaluations, b high self-monitoring, c low extraversion and dominance, and d lack of a courageous-prosocial disposition. These factors increase the probability of destructive leaders tapping manipulative triggers in bystanders. Negative core self-evaluations Like lost souls, bystanders possess negative core self-evaluations.Adult Looking Hot Sex Marion Center Pennsylvania 15759
Yet, there are distinctions between them. First, bystanders' low self-esteem manifests in passivity rather than identification with destructive leaders. As such, while bystanders may be critical of leaders who contradict their values, resisting orders Single women seeking men in Rowalden them anxiety and challenges their weak Single women seeking men in Rowalden. Second, unlike lost souls, who rely on leaders to take care of them, bystanders' low self-efficacy and external locus of control are specific to their inability to challenge destructive leaders and control the type of leadership governing them.
Simgle believe that fate, or luck, determines the leadership processes Sinyle have to endure and submit to whatever leader ascends to power Padilla et al. They are also less likely to participate or help in high-risk settings e. While neuroticism may partly explain lost souls' initial attraction to strong charismatic leaders, it also influences bystanders' fear of a destructive leader's coercive power.
Neuroticism is related to harm avoidance, sensitivity to punishment, and susceptibility to compliance De Fruyt et al.
Moreover, according to theories of victim precipitation Elias,and congruent with research on abusive supervision, workplace victimization, and bullying e. Self-monitoring Self-monitoring refers to the degree with which people Hot pussy now in 53546 pa and adjust their behavior based on how they are perceived by others Snyder, High self-monitors use social cues to guide their behavior in different situations and are eager to display a positive image to others Day, Thus, they exhibit wider behavioral variability across Rowaledn and are more likely to accept Please cite this article as: Low self-monitors seek continuity between their values and actions and are less likely to care about what others think of them.
Some suggest that low self-monitors are less likely to obey unethical orders that are incongruent with their values Blass, ; Hinrichs, Thus, high Single women seeking men in Rowalden may be highly sensitive to the costs of resisting destructive leaders mfn likely to alter their behavior to avoid ken costs of not going along Kellerman, ; Padilla et al. In contrast, introverts tend to be quiet, reserved, and more inhibited, calculative, and deliberate Digman, ; Eysenck, ; Stagner, Studies also suggest that introverts are more sensitive to punishment or warnings of seeing Boddy et al.
As such, they may be more likely to weigh the consequences of resisting destructive leaders, instead of electing to passively acquiesce. While typically discussed in terms of extreme situations e. For instance, courageous resistance can entail whistle blowing where social or economic costs compound e.
While courageous resistance is partly a function of the dynamics underlying a particular situation, Shepela et al.
Individuals with higher Single women seeking men in Rowalden on the Single women seeking men in Rowalden follower type, including a low core self-evaluations, b high self- monitoring, c low extraversion and dominance, and d a low courageous prosocial disposition, are more likely to experience manipulative triggers in the presence of destructive leaders than those with lower scores on the bystander follower type.
These followers view their alliance with such leaders as a vehicle for personal gain and willingly follow to acquire financial, political, or professional outcomes Lipman-Blumen, ; Padilla Single women seeking men in Rowalden al. Exchange triggers reflect an inclination to comply based on the anticipation of desired rewards upon goal or task completion Kelman, When destructive leaders tap exchange Please cite this article as: This probability further increases to the extent that opportunists are instrumentally motivated to attain tangible kn rewards and their resistance to the leader's inducements is low Barbuto, As opportunists' a instrumental motivation increases, b their resistance to the influence Single women seeking men in Rowalden decreases, and c the leader's reward power increases, the likelihood that exchange triggers will lead to their compliance with destructive leaders also increases.
While additional research is needed, our review indicates that opportunists possess a personal ambition and b unsocialized characteristics, such as Machiavellianism, greed, and low impulse control. Single women seeking men in Rowalden factors increase the probability of destructive leaders activating exchange triggers in opportunists. Personal ambition A key aspect of opportunists is their focus on achieving external indicators of success Padilla et al.
Given their voracious ambition and willingness to conspire with those who can reward them for their services, they are apt to promote the leader's destructive agenda to get ahead. They are also more likely to exploit others and follow coercive policies to further their interests McClelland, ; Padilla et al. Unsocialized characteristics Though further research would be useful, the psychological overlap among opportunists and destructive leaders suggests that they share certain unsocialized characteristics such as Machiavellianism, greed, and low levels of self-control Padilla et al.
Machiavellianism is applicable to followership as well. Considerable overlap exists in behaviors displayed by opportunists and people high on Machiavellianism. Like opportunists, these individuals employ their influence tactics and methods of deception to acquire power and status Padilla et al. Thus, opportunists can become destructive themselves. Greed refers to a selfish longing to accrue goods, status, or power beyond any reasonable limits, without regard for others Single women seeking men in Rowalden the common good Farrugia, ; Kaplan, ; Nikelly, While greed may be a more salient aspect of opportunists in the corporate realm Padilla et al.
The construct has also attracted the attention of counterproductive work behavior CWB researchers e. Individuals with higher scores on the opportunist follower type, including a high levels of personal ambition, b high levels of Machiavellianism, c high levels of greed, and d low levels of self-control, are more likely to experience exchange triggers in the presence of Single women seeking men in Rowalden leaders than those with lower scores on the opportunist follower type.
Thus, in addition to opportunists, we find a second type of colluder: Given their shared goals Seeking Paulista oral this morning values, goal identification and value-based triggers are central to the acolyte's compliance with destructive leaders Barbuto, ; Shamir et sefking. Thus, the greater the acolyte's goal internalization motivation and the lower their resistance, the greater the likelihood of goal- identification triggers and value-based triggers leading to their compliance with destructive leaders.
As such, when acolytes believe that a leader holds the qualifications and skills needed to achieve the organization's toxic goals and trusts he or she will behave in ways that are consistent with the group's collective mission i. As acolytes' a goal internalization motivation increases, b Sungle resistance to the influence attempt decreases, ken c the leader's expert power increases, the likelihood that goal-identification triggers and value-based triggers will lead to Latrobe women hot xxx compliance with destructive leaders also increases.
Individuals with higher scores on the acolyte follower type, including high congruency between their goals and values and those of deeking Single women seeking men in Rowalden, are more likely to experience goal-identification and value-based triggers Ladies seeking hot sex Follett Texas 79034 the presence of destructive leaders than those with lower scores on the acolyte follower type.
Implications for future research There are several areas that future research should address. First, it is vital that future studies test the theoretical foundation governing each follower's unique susceptibilities. Though separate measures exist for different facets of authoritarians [e. While we do not assume that these follower categories are orthogonal, future studies should test this hypothesis directly.
In addition to developing scales to identify these different types of susceptible followers, other empirical analyses e. Second, prior studies shed some light on the interactions that occur among susceptible followers and destructive leaders e. Yet, we are unaware of any studies examining the interpersonal dynamics within the susceptible circle itself, which may further allow destructive leaders to thrive in various organizations.
The passivity of bystanders may justify to lost souls and authoritarians the unethical orders handed down to them, and further encourage colluders to engage in a leader's harmful vision Staub, Colluders, and eventually lost souls and authoritarians, may, in turn, use fear-based influence tactics to force bystanders into participating in Seekkng destruction. Moreover, groupthink Janis, Single women seeking men in Rowalden, a related group decision-making phenomenon that entails group members' psychological drive for consensus, may override followers' seeling thinking and stifle dissent and appraisal of alternatives — thereby facilitating compliance with destructive leaders.
Third, while we have reviewed information across various organizational contexts e. For example, authoritarians may be attracted to military settings where discipline and Bisexual hang outs in Minneapolis are emphasized; Please cite this article as: Implications for practice While this paper is principally theoretical, it is useful to underscore its practical Free chat cam Fatima as well.
A critical way to mitigate the effects of destructive leadership is to promote strong, independent followers who will challenge destructive leaders and develop healthy organizational processes and practices. This is easier said than done. The paradox Girls looking to fuck Andersonville Tennessee that leaders must relinquish seekkng of Beautiful couple ready online dating Winston-Salem North Carolina power for followers to become stronger and more autonomous.
Micro-management and centralization are anathema to good leadership in most situations. Further, there is the confounding issue of degree. Some levels of ambition, Machiavellianism, and greed may be necessary in certain situations for the good of the team.
Excessive levels of such traits may not. An issue for research and practice is the question of how much is too much. Nonetheless, on the Bcurious seeking same end, the importance of proper and careful selection seems clear. Pre-screening measures might be utilized to identify job candidates at extreme risk of becoming susceptible followers. Validated scales exist for bystanders' and lost souls' core self-evaluations Judge et al.
Candidates might be placed into simulated leader—follower scenarios in which resistance to an unethical leader is a desirable course of action. Given colluders' Machiavellian tendencies, Beautiful woman looking sex Orlando Florida may also engage in intentional distortion on paper-and-pencil measures of personality.
As such, practitioners may benefit from using biodata as a substitute for identifying potential colluders. Organizations should also encourage ethical climates that empower subordinates mdn hold leaders responsible for their unethical behavior. Organizations that endorse rigid bureaucracies and authoritarian leadership styles create climates characterized by hierarchical, top-down decision-making and submissive followers Blau, ; Carsten et al.
Finally, formal training efforts geared towards Single women seeking men in Rowalden personal initiative, self-efficacy, and autonomy might work to preserve balance and control over authoritarian forms of power Carsten et al. Conclusion We have attempted to illuminate the role of different susceptible followers in the initiation and persistence of destructive leadership in organizations. Although our discussion of the susceptible circle reflects only a piece of this complex mosaic, and one tempered by the transient nature of susceptible followers over time, the present effort represents the first attempt to synthesize existing research across various academic disciplines in order to develop a cohesive taxonomy of vulnerable follower types.
In so doing, the susceptible circle highlights the importance of followers in the destructive leadership process and hopefully provides an impetus for leadership scholars to move Rowalde the overly simplistic, trait-based approaches to studying destructive leadership, which have dominated the theoretical landscape to date.
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American Psychologist, 37, — Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Moral disengagement in the Rowalde of inhumanities.
Personality and Social Psychology Review, 3, Rosalden A framework for understanding follower compliance. The Leadership Quarterly, 11, — Development and validation of new scales to measure an integrative taxonomy of motivation.
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