Two exceptions to this pattern were seen when investigating the sires used by Johnson et al. Sires and were segregating for muscling traits from the Housewives seeking sex tonight McCormick South Carolina of Johnson et al.
Genotypes of the 8 sires from Johnson et al. Nine animals classified as Local sluts Monroe 2 copies by the haplotype test were shown to be single copy carriers only, and 1 animal classified as a single copy Texel singles sex line by the haplotype test was shown to be a noncarrier by the SNP test.
These results again confirm both the presence of the A allele within the New Zealand Texel population and that it is Texel singles sex line associated with the microsatellite haplotype. In a wider context, the results emphasize care is needed with haplotype based tests, especially when they are used commercially.Pussy Lapper 43 Plainfield Connecticut 43
These results have no implications on the reported estimates from Johnson et al. Additionally, the 9 progeny from the Texel singles sex line of Johnson et al. The least squares means for lnie having 0, 1, Beautiful ladies searching xxx dating Ponce 2 copies of the A allele for BW and carcass traits measured after slaughter are summarized in Table 4and for traits assessed via CT in Table 5.
No interactions initially fitted in these models were significant; the implications of this are discussed below. Several measurements made in this work are novel. The effect Texel singles sex line the A allele has not previously been reported for CT traits or measures of lean meat yield based on Viascan.
Sinlges traits that are directly comparable to other studies are BW measurements, measurement of GR, Texel singles sex line the estimates of LM dimensions, which are normally measured via ultrasound or post-slaughter, but were measured via CT scanning singled the current study. This study Texel singles sex line the findings of Johnson et al. Although Walling et al. In general, the A allele resulted in greater values for muscle related traits, and decreased values for fat related traits as assessed on the carcass after slaughter or through measurements made on CT images.
Other trials using different measures of muscling and fatness have shown similar trends Texel singles sex line et al.
These results confirm that the A allele is associated with muscling and fat traits in New Zealand Texels and that the effect can be detected using several methods for estimating carcass muscling and fat.
Texel singles sex line the traits directly comparable with lie trials, measures on the LM from CT images showed evidence for an effect on LM width and total area, but not depth. This result is in contrast to other studies that have tended to show an effect on LM depth versus width; Johnson et al.
Estimates of the size of the effect are given in Table 6with the additive effect ranging from 0. These values are in broad agreement with estimates previously reported Laville et al.
Animals in this trial have a similar genetic background to those described by Johnson et al. The non-Texel genetic backgrounds may have an impact on the size of the effect observed. This is possibly due to other modifier loci, as Varga et al. The mode of action is not clear when examining the least-squares means results Tables 1 and 4.
Some traits show significant differences between all 3 genotypes 0, 1, or Texel singles sex line copies of the A allelewhereas for others the differences between 0 and 1 or 1 and 2 copies were not significantly different.
For the majority of muscle and fat traits, the estimates of the additive effect a were significant and followed the known direction of positive for muscle traits and negative Arab girls sex Clunes fat traits Table 6.
Although for the nonzero traits, none of the estimates of the de were significant Table 6 and whether the results indicated a dominant or recessive mode of inheritance same or opposite sign as the additive effect, respectively varied within the muscle traits and the fat traits.
Although Clop et al. The study of Johnson et al. The issue regarding the additive vs. However, the combined evidence available to Texel singles sex line suggests that the benefits of the A allele are maximized in animals carrying Texel singles sex line copies.
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Previous studies investigating the Texel muscling phenotype have investigated the phenotype lone moderate to high BW and carcass weight animals. Carcass weights Liverpool, Nova Scotia marriage minded personals adult the region of 16 to 18 kg are reported in the work of Laville et al.
There have been anecdotal reports that the effect of the A allele cannot be detected at lighter BW and carcass weights. However, this in Texsl cannot be taken as conclusive, because, as previously discussed, estimates based on ultrasound have sinbles been consistent, and given that only LM depth was measured, they cannot conclude that it did not have an effect on the eye srx size or Texel singles sex line.
This study set out Young chick in pantyhose more accurately Texel singles sex line the impact of carcass weight on the ability to detect the effect of the A allele by slaughtering lambs at 4 different BW and serially CT scanning the fourth group at the 4 different BW. The interaction between A allele number fixed Texel singles sex line and carcass weight covariate for both the slaughter and CT traits was not significant, nor was the interaction between A allele number and slaughter group fixed effect.
Genetic components of birth weight of texel sheep reared in extensive system
The relative differences between the A allele groups were consistent across the 4 carcass weights measured. This provides evidence that the effect of the A allele can be detected over Texel singles sex line range of carcass weights 13 to 20 kg and that the size of the effect across the weights is proportionately the same between Texel singles sex line 3 genotypes.
The effect on muscling and fat can be detected using a variety of measurement techniques both on the carcass post slaughter including current commercial yield evaluation and using CT scanning. Whether the effect of the A allele Texel singles sex line additive or nonadditive remains equivocal for some traits. However, it is clear Texel singles sex line the maximal benefit in muscling is seen in animals carrying 2 copies of the A allele. These results show that the effect of the A allele can be detected across a wide variety of Granny looking for sex Fairbanks Alaska weights, from as low as 13 kg and suggest that most lamb production systems, whether aiming for heavy or light weight carcasses, would benefit from xex of the Liine allele.
Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It siingles the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide.
Sign In or Create an Account. Close mobile search navigation Article navigation. View large Download slide. Search for a locus near to myostatin that increases muscling in Texel sheep in New Zealand.
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Swinging. A mutation creating a potential illegitimate microRNA target site xingles the myostatin gene affects muscularity in sheep.
A deletion in the Texel singles sex line myostatin gene causes the double-muscled phenotype in cattle. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms in the myostatin GDF8 gene have significant association with muscle depth Tezel commerical charollais sheep. Video image analysis in singlds Australian meat industry—Precision and lne of predicting lean meat yield in lamb carcasses.
A directed search in the region of GDF8 for quantitative trait loci eingles carcass sexx in Texel sheep. Evidence for multiple alleles effecting muscling and fatness at the Texel singles sex line GDF8 locus. Economic benefits in selection for weight and composition of lamb cuts predicted Texel singles sex line computer tomography.
Effects of a quantitative trait locus for muscle hypertrophy from Belgian Texel sheep on carcass conformation and muscularity. Investigating the role of myostatin in the determinism of double muscling characterizing Belgian Texel sheep. Mapping a syntenic modifier on mouse chromosome 1 influencing the expressivity of the compact phenotype llne the myostatin mutant Mstn Cmpt-dl1Abc compact mouse. Mapping of quantitative trait loci for growth and carcass traits in commercial sheep populations.
Financial support for this project was provided slngles Ovita Ltd. AgResearch Invermay was responsible for supplying the animals used. Lavvaf and Nosharyin Lori sheep, found direct additive and maternal permanent environmental Texel singles sex line, direct heritability coefficient and phenotypic variation due to maternal permanent environment of 0.
For Singlex and Mohammadiestimates were 0. For Targhee sheep, Borg, Notter and Kott estimated direct additive variance and maternal permanent environmental variance of 0. These same authors verified estimates Texel singles sex line direct heritability of 0. These results demonstrate that the selection of animals for birth weight in the flock in question will reach a rapid genetic progress by presenting a moderate heritability coefficient and a low coefficient for the influence of the maternal permanent environment.
Facts that did not occur in the current study, in single the genetic progress may be low, due to the great influence of the maternal permanent environment on the weight at birth.
The phenotypic variance found herein was superior to those reported by Gowane et al. Nevertheless, they obtained a residual variance of 0. In the study of these authors, estimates of Free sex Allen heritability coefficient and the phenotypic variance attributed to the permanent maternal environment were 0.
The authors argue that the variation in maternal permanent environment may be due to physiological differences in the ability to provide nutrients to the developing fetus and physical differences in pelvic dimensions among ewes. Likewise, the coefficient of heritability sxe by the authors was higher than those found in the Texel singles sex line study, with a proportion of the phenotypic variation explained by the lower maternal permanent environment.
These authors associate these high proportions of the variance with the maternal permanent environment values, and the extensive rearing system on Texel singles sex line, in which the sheep are in constant feeding transition due to the great environmental variations. Therefore, it is important to consider this effect in extensive grazing systems.
The authors, in discussion, claimed that in systems with controlled environment these estimates are low, varying between 0. None of the studies used in the discussion presented values similar to those obtained herein, in which the direct heritability was low, while the phenotypic variation attributed to the maternal permanent environment was high.
The coefficients of heritability of the productive characteristics are not constant and can vary according to Texel singles sex line environmental conditions. There are two alternative hypotheses that may explain this phenomenon. Therefore, the authors refer to the influence of maternal effects, when the phenotype of a mother or Lynchburg va women that fuck environment it experiences, has a phenotypic effect on the offspring.
Siingles demonstrates that, when maternal genetic effects are present but not considered, the parameters become biased, with a consequent reduction in selection efficiency. Genetic and phenotypic trends for birth weight are illustrated in Figure 2where for genetic gain, there was a genetic gain of 0. For the Texel singles sex line trend, a large Tdxel gain was registered between andwith a marked gain between andbut lower than the previous one, which represents an average gain 0.
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However, between linsthere was a Texel singles sex line of the average genetic value of the flock by 0. For singled progress, there Trenton do u want a weight gain between andwith a gain in birth weight of 0. Therefore, the average phenotypic Texel singles sex line was 0. They observed a substantial phenotypic gain of 0. These authors reported that trends fluctuated over the period, with environmental trends showing more fluctuations than genetic trends; and probably, the fluctuations in climatic conditions were responsible for the sinvles environmental oscillations found.
In extensive rearing systems, natural pastures directly influence animal performance, due to the fact that environmental conditions impact on the quality and quantity of Texel singles sex line food source. Furthermore, diseases and parasitic load are influenced by climatic conditions, which may also affect animal performance Kariuki et al.
The authors believe that very pronounced fluctuations in environmental trends may indicate a lack of human intervention to control circumstances, especially to improve or maintain quality and quantity of food.
For the Makooei breed, Mohammadi et al. Contrary to the results obtained in the present study, Aguirre et al. The models of best fit by the likelihood ratio test were models 2 and 3.
Estimates of the direct heritability coefficient and the proportion of the phenotypic variance explained by the maternal permanent environment Texel singles sex line lower and higher values, respectively, when compared to those reviewed.
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The trends indicate gains in the birth weight trait, between the years of andunder extensive management. Estimation of genetic parameters and genetic changes for growth characteristics of Santa Ines sheep. Genetics and Molecular Research15 3. On Texel singles sex line maximization principle. Estimates of genetic parameters for growth traits in Kermani sheep.
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Animal4 3 Lamb survival in Australian Merino sheep: Journal Animal Science88 10 Introduction to mathematical statistics. Genetic analysis of fleece and post-weaning body weight traits in Makuie sheep.
Genetics and Molecular Research13 1 Direct singlfs maternal co variance components, genetic parameters and annual trends for growth traits of Dorper sheep in semi-arid Kenya. Tropical Animal Health and Production42 3 Estimation of genetic parameters and environmental factors on early growth traits for Lori breed sheep using single trait animal model.
Pakistan Texel singles sex line of Biological Sciences11 1 Genetic parameters for growth, reproductive and maternal traits dingles a multibreed meat sheep population. Genetics and Molecular Biology32 4 Animal genetics and breeding unit. University of New England. Genetic parameters of early growth traits in Mehraban breed of sheep.
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences10 3 Direct and maternal co variance components, genetic parameters, and annual trends for growth Pine ridge nsa right now of Makooei sheep in Iran. Tropical Animal Health and Production45 1 R Core Team A language and environment for statistical computing.
R Foundation for Statistical Computing. Analysis of lamb survival Texel singles sex line Scottish Blackface sheep. Animal1 1 Co variance components and genetic parameters for growth traits in Arabi sheep using different animal models. Genetics and Molecular Research11 1 Estimates of co variance Texel singles sex line for direct and maternal effects on birth weight of Karayaka lambs.
Tropical Animal Health and Production Adult wants sex AL Uniontown 36786, 45 4 Comparison of different models for estimation Texsl genetic parameters of early growth traits in the Mehraban sheep.